To make a diagnosis of influenza, you need to know only one fact: the flu begins immediately with a high temperature, which rises with a candle against the background of sometimes almost complete health. the disease begins so suddenly that some patients may indicate the time of its onset, sometimes with an accuracy of half an hour. The temperature can rise quite quickly, so the patient will have chills, headache, photophobia, pain in the eyes are possible. These are typical signs of the onset of flu.
Where did I get infected?
The answer to this question is not so important. The flu virus is very contagious and even wearing a mask cannot guarantee 100% protection against it. Therefore, it is not worth looking for the guilty that someone is sick. The annual epidemic of viral diseases is also a training for our immunity. The main thing is to act correctly during an illness.What to do if someone is sick?
The main thing is not to panic! Influenza is an infection that the vast majority of people tolerate calmly, receive immunity to it, and after a few days they feel completely healthy. Despite the panic raised in the media, swine flu does not have any particularly harmful qualities. And mortality from the flu has always been, is and will be. However, as mentioned above, this does not apply to the vast majority of people.
Create optimal conditions for the patient:
The sick person needs to be put to bed, sheathed warmly, but at the same time ventilate the room and moisten the air. The temperature is about 20 ° C, humidity 50−70%. Turn on the humidifier, wash the floors, hang wet towels or special water evaporators on the central heating batteries. Change them as the moisture evaporates. Ventilate the room as often as possible. You can do this directly with a patient, who needs to be warmly covered in this.
The influenza virus does not live in cool air, and with increased humidity, the patient does not dry out the mucous membranes and the body itself is able to fight the infection. This is what you need to remember for those who use immunostimulants for prevention. Immunity only works if the nasal mucosa is moistened. Therefore, moist air, heavy drinking and moisturizing the mucous membranes are so important. But this will be discussed further.
Do not force the sick person to eat. If he asks for a snack, then let him eat something light, carbohydrate, liquid. Read our flu diet guidelines. But in general, low-fat chicken broth with croutons, warm milk with honey, tea with apples or with lemon and raspberries - these funds are needed in any case.
Drink a lot. See the previous paragraph. Give a warm drink in the form in which the patient tolerates it. Do not drink sick with boiling water, that is, too hot a drink - take care of the mucous membrane of the oropharynx! Ideally, the temperature of the drink should be equal to body temperature. If the baby is crouching - drink it from a spoon often and little by little. No matter how strange it sounds, drinking is the main treatment for the flu! Give the patient compotes, fruit drinks, decoctions of dried fruits - let him say what he wants to drink. In pharmacies, by the way, there are solutions of electrolytes - rehydron, gastrolite - they can also be given, especially to those who have stool disorder against the background of temperature.
Difficulties can arise with older people or those who have kidney problems. Everything is individual here - however, they also need to strengthen the drinking regime during the flu.
Flush the mucous membranes. It’s not necessary to run to the pharmacy. It is enough to make an elementary salt solution - a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water. Pour the resulting solution into any bubble and puff in the nose as often as possible. You can use any solutions from the pharmacy - those that contain salty water.
Make a bubble for each family member and sign them. Washing the nasal mucous membranes is an excellent flu prevention for those who have to live with a sick person under one roof.
Do not drip vasoconstrictor drops into your nose - they dry the mucous membrane. On the first day, the patient usually does not have a cold. If a runny nose interferes with sleep - drops from a runny nose can be dripped at night. But in this case, first rinse the mucous membranes, blow your nose, then rinse the mucous membrane again and only then drip the vasoconstrictor drops. Place a humidifier near the patient so that the mucous membranes do not dry out.
Decrease in body temperature. With the help of temperature, the body fights infection. Reduce it only if it is above 38 ° C and the patient does not tolerate it. Use only paracetamo l Candles with paracetamol help well for children. Read more about all methods of lowering the temperature here.
DO NOT USE ASPIRINE IN INFLUENZA!
Distracting procedures can be applied. - to soar legs, to put cans - but this is not a treatment as such, therefore seeks to do it without fail, especially if the patient is ill - it is not necessary. Drinking, moist air, rinsing the nose - this is more important.
With damage to the upper respiratory tract (nose, throat, larynx) expectorants only increase the cough. Usually a cough for the flu does not start on the first day of the disease. Therefore, at first, no expectorant is needed. And then, if the cough does not go away, you need to show the sick person to a specialist.
Viral infections are not treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics do not reduce, but increase the risk of complications. Therefore - no antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription. You can drink antiviral drugs, but you should also consult a specialist about taking them. They are not as effective as advertising claims. Various pops "with the flu" should be used carefully - dyes are often added to them, which is not useful for an organism that fights infection. And they often contain aspirin - and it is strictly forbidden to use it with flu!
Bed rest in the early days of the disease. No labor feats needed. Coming to work with the flu, you risk not only making complications, but also infecting others. And then, after a week, you risk staying in the workplace in splendid isolation - because your colleagues will fall ill. A few days of your absence will not do the weather.
Call a doctor. In most cases, not so required. If you need a sick leave, then, of course, you should call the clinic. But if the doctor does not come on the first day, but just calls, this happens during the epidemic. You need to understand that when a doctor comes to you, he brings with him viruses from other patients he has visited before. However, there are situations when a doctor is simply necessary.
When a doctor is needed:
- the infant or pregnant woman is sick;
- there is no improvement on the fourth day of illness;
- elevated body temperature lasts on the seventh day of illness;
- worse after improvement;
- severe general condition with moderate symptoms of SARS;
- occurrence in isolation or in combination: pallor of the skin; thirst, shortness of breath, intense pain anywhere, purulent discharge;
- increased cough, decreased productivity (without sputum, dry, barking); a deep breath leads to a coughing fit;
- with an increase in body temperature, they do not help, practically do not help, or very briefly paracetamol and ibuprofen help.
A doctor is required and urgently (ambulance):
- loss of consciousness;
- signs of respiratory failure (shortness of breath, shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air);
- intense pain, anywhere;
- even mild sore throat in the absence of a runny nose;
- even mild headache combined with vomiting;
- swelling of the neck;
- a rash that does not disappear when pressed on it;
- body temperature above 39 ° C, which does not begin to decrease 30 minutes after the use of antipyretic drugs;
- any increase in body temperature in combination with chills and pallor of the skin.
However, we are sure that in most cases things will not come to an urgent and critical situation if you do everything right. Of course, flu can be dangerous for seriously ill people. But in most cases, we transfer this infection without consequences.